Describe: tell what occurred
Predict: under what conditions is the behavior/event likely to occur
Control: how is the principle applied or what change in condition is necessary to prevent unwanted occurrence or to bring about a desired outcome
Wilhelm Wudnt - in 1879
Bradford Titchener - broke consciousness into three elements: physical sensations, feelings and images (memories)
2. Functionalism - explores how an organism uses perceptual abilities to function in its environment
William James - 1st American Psychologist; minds constantly weaving associations, revising experience, jumping back and forth in time "consciousness flows in a conscious stream"; nervous system changed by experiences
3. Psychodynamic/Psychoanalysis - method of investigation of the mind and the way one thinks; a systematized set of theories about human behavior; and a form of psychotherapy to treat psychological or emotional distress, especially unconscious conflict
Sigmund Freud - doctor/neurologist; unconscious desires and conflicts lie at bottom of symptoms; free will an illusion; motivated by unconscious instincts not available to conscious mind; personality develops in stages-need to resolve conflicts in early stages
4. Behaviorism - school of psychology that studies observable, measurable behavior
John Watson – argued that structuralism, functionalism and psychodynamic theories mental life a superstition; if you can't measure it can't study it; focus on observable, measurable; behaviorism based on Pavlov studies that showed behavior is learned response to stimuli in the environment-conditioning; infant "tabula rasa"
“Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. I am going beyond my facts and I admit it, but so have the advocates of the contrary and they have been doing it for many thousands of years.” [Behaviorism (1930), p. 82]
BF Skinner – added idea of reinforcement- rewarded subjects for behaving certain way; rat in cage with lever-reinforced with food when lever pressed
6. Gestalt - studies how people perceive and experience objects as whole patterns
Wolfgang Kohler, Max Wertheimer and Kurt Koffka - rather that breaking down thoughts and behavior to their smallest element, the gestalt position maintains that the whole of experience is important, and the whole is different than the sum of its parts.
7. Existentialism - focuses on the meaninglessness and alienation of modern life, and how these factors lead to apathy and psychological problems
8. Humanism - focused on fundamentally and uniquely human issues, such as individual free will, personal growth, self-actualization, self-identity, death, aloneness, freedom, and meaning.
Abraham Maslow – hierarchy of needs
Carl Rogers - an influential American psychologist and among the founders of the humanistic approach to psychology; widely considered to be one of the founding fathers of psychotherapy research
9. Cognitive- studies mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember, and learn
Noam Chomsky - There are three key ideas. First is that the mind is "cognitive," or that the mind actually contains mental states, beliefs, doubts, and so on. Second, he argued that most of the important properties of language and mind are innate. Lastly, Chomsky made the concept of "modularity" a critical feature of the mind's cognitive architecture. The mind is composed of an array of interacting, specialized subsystems with limited flows of inter-communication.
* a negative correlation means when one increases the other is associated with a decrease (e.g. there is a negative correlation between number of cigarettes a person smokes and the number of years a person can expect to live) -variables that are not related: grade point average and height, and illness, and shoe size
* the stronger the relationship between variables, the better the prediction