1st Semester, A.Y. 2011-2012

Course Code                            : SS101

Course Title                               : PHILIPPINE GOVERNMENT AND CONSTITUTION
Course Credits                          : 3 units

Class Schedule and Room         : Thursday, 1:00PM-4:00PM (C5), Room 102
                                                  Friday, 7:00AM-10:00AM (Main), Room 305     
Course Instructor                       : Marlon B. Raquel
                                                  Master of Arts in Demography (continuing), UP Diliman
  Bachelor of Arts in Social Sciences (Political Science), UP Tacloban

Consultation Hours                    : WTh, 4:00PM-6:00PM/Sat, 7:00AM-3:00PM at the Faculty Room
                                                  Or by appointment, email me at

Contact Numbers                      : 553-9187 (C5); 839-1903 (Main) 

Class Website                           :


This course deals with the development, structure, and operation of the Philippine government as embodied in the 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines with emphasis on the present.  


At the end of the semester, you should be able to learn the following four Ds (4Ds):
  1. Describe the key concepts and theoretical approaches and frameworks of political analysis in analyzing past and present developments of the Philippine government;
  2. Distinguish the structure, functions, and issues of the three branches of government, the Constitutional Commissions, and other political institutions;
  3. Discuss the basic principles and the development of the present Constitution; and
  4. Develop an interest in the political system equipped with knowledge on your rights, duties, and responsibilities as a member of the Philippine society.


One (1) semester is equivalent to eighteen (18) weeks, or its equivalent of normally six (6) school days a week, or one hundred (100) days (CHED Memorandum Order No. 40, Series of 2008).

Session #1                   Discussion of syllabus and course orientation
Introduction to Political Science and Its Relation to Other Disciplines
Importance of Studying Philippine Constitution

Readings:          De Leon, pp. 1-5, Zulueta, pp. 1-20, Article XIV, Sec. 3 [1]

Session #2                   Meaning and Elements of State
Theories on the Origin of State
                                    State, Nation, and Government Distinguished    
                                    Different Forms and Systems of Government
                                    The Doctrine of Parens Patriae and Doctrine of State Immunity from Suit
                                    The Three Inherent Powers of the State

Readings:          Article III, Sec. 9; Article XII, Sec. 18, Article XVI, Sec. 3

De Leon, pp. 5-9

Rousseau, Jean-Jacques (1762). “The Social Contract.” In Theories of Democracy by Ronald Terchek and Thomas Conte, eds. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, Inc., pp.67-74.
Zulueta, pp. 21-43, 63-76

National QuickStat: A Monthly Update of Philippine Statistics. Manila: National Statistics Office. Any available data this year

Short Quiz #1: General Information and Current Events in the Philippines,
Asia, and the World and Course Syllabus

Session #3                   Meaning, Nature, and Scope of Constitution
                                    Kinds of Constitution
                                    The History and Development of the 1987 Philippine Constitution
The Constitutions of La Liga Filipina, Biak-na-Bato (1897), Malolos (1899), 1935 (Commonwealth Period), 1943 (Japanese Occupation), 1973 (Marcos Era), 1986 Provisional Constitution (Freedom Constitution), and the 1987 (Present Constitution)                        
                                    Basic Principles Underlying the Constitution
                                    The Preamble
                                                The Preambles of the 1973 and 1987 Constitutions Compared

Readings:          De Leon, pp. 10-37; Zulueta, pp. 79-91

Session #4                   The National Territory
                                                The Archipelagic Doctrine
Territorial Issues: Spratlys, Sabah, Macclesfield Bank, and Scarborough Shoal
                                    Meaning and Significance of Sovereignty
                                    The Supremacy of Civilian Authority over Military Authority
                                    Duties and Obligations of the Government
                                    The Doctrine of Separation of the Church and State

Readings:          De Leon, pp. 38-55
Bautista, Lowell (2009). The Philippine Treaty and Territorial Water Claims in International Law. Social Science Diliman, 5:1-2, pp. 107-127
Short Quiz #2: Sessions 2 and 3 Topics

Session #5                   PRELIMINARY EXAMINATION

Session #6                   Social Justice and Human Rights
                                    The Filipino Family
                                    The Role of Youth and Women in Nation-Building
                                    Health, Ecology, and Education
                                    Science and Technology, Arts and Culture, and Sports
Readings:          De Leon, pp. 56-66, 397-402, 420, 422-488

Short Quiz #3: Session 4 Topics

Session #7                               Declaration of State Policies and Principles, cont….
                                                Labor, Rural Development and Agrarian Reform
                                                National Economy and Patrimony
                                                Indigenous Cultural Minorities
                                                Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs)
                                                Information and Communication Technology (ICT)          

Readings: De Leon, pp. 66-69, 354-396, 403-416, 421-422

Short Quiz #4: Session 6 Topics

Session #8                    Bill of Rights
                                                Historical Background, Nature, Purpose and Basis of Bill of Rights
                                                Due Process and Equal Protection of Law
                                                The Three Inalienable Human Rights: Life, Liberty, and Property                                                   Search Warrant, Warrant of Arrest, Warrantless Arrest, and Seizure
                                                Freedom of Expression, Religion, Abode and Travel
                                                Writ of Habeas Corpus
                                                Debt and Tax   
                                                Double Jeopardy
                                                Ex Post Facto Law and Bill of Attainder

Readings:          De Leon, pp. 73-129

Session #9                    Citizenship
                                                Citizenship vs. Nationality
                                                Subject vs. Alien
                                                Ways of Acquiring Citizenship
                                                Loss and Reacquisition of Citizenship
                                                Dual Allegiance to the Philippine Republic
                                                Duties and Obligations of Filipino Citizens
                                                Meaning, Nature, and Scope of Suffrage
                                                Qualifications of Voters
                                                The Voting Process
                                                Sanctity and Secrecy of Ballots
                                                Absentee Voting

Readings:          De Leon, 130-152; Zulueta, pp. 94-104, 119-127

Short Quiz #5: Sessions 7 and 8 Topics

Session #10                 MIDTERM EXAMINATION

Session #11                  The Legislative Department
                                                Meaning of Legislative Power
                                                Unicameral vs. Bicameral Legislature
                                                The Senate
                                                The House of Representatives
                                                Qualifications and Powers of Senators and Congressmen
                                                The Party-List System
                                                Salary and Immunity
                                                Disqualifications and Removal from Office
                                                Limitations on the Powers of Congress
                                                How a Bill Becomes a Law

Readings:          De Leon, pp. 153-204; Zulueta, pp. 205-216

The 2011 Budget in Brief. Available at the Department of Budget and Management’s website

Short Quiz #6: Session 9 Topics

Session #12                  The Executive Department
                                                Meaning of Executive Power
                                                Qualifications of the President and the Vice-President
                                                The Cabinet Secretaries
                                                The Powers and Duties of the President
                                                Presidential Succession
                                                Salaries of the President and the Vice-President

Readings:          De Leon, pp. 206-240; Zulueta, pp. 219-230
Session #13                  The Judicial Department
                                                Meaning of Judicial Power
                                                Organization of Courts
                                                Composition of the Supreme Court
                                                Qualifications of the Members of the Supreme Court
                                                Powers and Obligations of Supreme Court Justices
                                                Meaning, Form, and Procedure of Court Decisions

Readings:          De Leon, 241-272; Zulueta, pp. 233-245
                        2009 Supreme Court Annual Report. Available at the SC’s website

Short Quiz #7: Sessions 11, 12 and 13 Topics

Session#14                  PRE-FINAL EXAMINATION

Session #15                  The Constitutional Commissions
                                                The Civil Service Commission (CSC)
                                                The Commission on Elections (COMELEC)
                                                The Commission on Audit (COA)
                                    Composition, Qualifications, Powers, and Functions      
                                    Salaries of Members of the Constitutional Commissions

Readings:          De Leon, pp. 273-315
Session #16                  The Local Government Units (LGUs)
                                                Meaning and Importance of Local Governments
                                                Centralization vs. Decentralization
                                                Powers, Term of Office, and Representation
                                                The Local Government Code
                                                Creation, Division, and Merger of Local Government Units
                                                Autonomous Regions

Readings:          De Leon, 317-334; Zulueta, pp. 289-298

                        Republic Act No. 7160. The Local Government Code of 1991

Tapales (1993). Devolution and Empowerment: The Local Government Code of 1991 and Local Autonomy in the Philippines. Quezon City: UP Center for Integrative and Development Studies’ State of the Nation Report No. 7

Session #17                  Accountability of Public Officers
                                                Meaning and Nature of Public Office
                                                Meaning and Nature of Impeachment
                                                Sandiganbayan and Ombudsman: Powers, Functions, and Duties
                                    General and Transitory Provisions and Amendments or Revisions

Readings:          De Leon, pp. 335-353, 508-527
Short Quiz #8: Sessions 15, 16 and 17 Topics

Session #18                 FINAL EXAMINATION


Note: Submissions of academic papers and assignments beyond the deadlines will not be entertained/accepted/approved!

Major Exams – Four (4) major exams are usually given in a semester – prelim, midterm, pre-final and final exams. However, in this class no prelim and pre-final tests will be given; only midterm and final exams will be administered to you. There are other requirements you need to submit in lieu of the prelim and pre-final exams which will be discussed below.

No prelim exam will be given. However, you are required to submit two (2) reviews. Two articles dealing with Philippine Government and Constitution will be given to you on the second class meeting. You have three weeks to read the articles, re-read them, synthesize the writers’ points of view, and make your own analysis. Reviews must be HANDWRITTEN in yellow papers/bond papers. Deadline of submission is on:
July 14, 2011 (Thursday) until 6:00PM – For Thursday class
July 15, 2011 (Friday) until 6:00PM – For Friday class

For the midterm exam (2-3 pages), a combination of different types of tests will be given such as multiple-choice questions, enumeration, true-or-false questions, essays, etc.  This will be a 100-point test. The midterm exam will be administered on:
August 18, 2011 (Thursday) – For Thursday class
                        August 19, 2011 (Friday) – For Friday class

A research paper is a major requirement in this course which is equivalent to your pre-final exam. This is a group work. Each group should have three (3) members each. I strongly suggest using the American Psychological Association (APA) Style in writing your research paper. Use 8.5” by 11” bond paper; font size should be 12 if you use Times New Roman or 11-point size if you use Arial (Don’t use other font type!); one inch in all margins; double space; and with a title page. Contents of the research paper, e.g., format, will be discussed to you on the first class session. Submission is on or before:
September 15 (Thursday), 2011 until 12:00NN – For Thursday class
September 16 (Friday), 2011 until 7:00AM – For Friday class

There will be an oral presentation by each group on your chosen research topic scheduled above. Each group can choose one of the topics below.

  1. The Best Form and System of Government in the Philippines: Presidential-Unitary vs. Parliamentary-Federal
  2. The Roots of Filipino Communism: History, Ideologies, and  Struggles
  3. The Charter Change Issue: Boon or Bane?
  4. A Comparative Study of Arroyo and Aquino Administrations
  5. Any topic related to Philippine Government and Constitution subject to my approval

For the final exam (2-3 pages), questions will be composed of multiple-choice and essay questions. Coverage includes but not limited to the questions on short quizzes and the midterm exam. Date of the final examination is on:

October 13 (Thursday), 2011 – For Thursday class
October 15 (Friday), 2011 – For Friday class

Short Quizzes There will be eight (8) short quizzes to be given for the entire semester. All questions are objective type. Questions could be enumeration, multiple choice, or true-or-false. No essay or definition of terms will be given. Each quiz consists of not less than 10 items but not more than 20 items. They will be given right after the lecture-discussion but the topics covered are those that have been discussed two weeks before. This type of test will measure your memory. Please be aware of the dates of the short quizzes.

Online Assignments – Four assignments will be given to you throughout the duration of the course. Assignments will be available two weeks before the deadline on our class website at Look for the link with the heading “ASSIGNMENT, i.e, Assignment No. 1, Assignment No. 2, Assignment No. 3 and Assignment No. 4” then click “Philippine Government and Constitution.” Deadlines of submission are indicated below for both classes.

                        Assignment 1                            9 July 2011, 11:59PM
                        Assignment 2                            13 August 2011, 11:59PM
                        Assignment 3                            10 September 2011, 11:59PM
                        Assignment 4                            8 October 2011, 11:59PM

Class Participation – Class participation will measure your involvement during discussions. This class is not designed for a one-way process; this is a two-way communication. Therefore, recitation is of vital importance. If there is something that is not clear to you, you better ask. You are free to disagree with me or your classmates even at the middle of my lecture. Exercise your freedom of expression. Just make sure you are able to defend and justify your position.


Midterm Grade:                                                 Final Period Grade:
2 Reviews – 30%                                               Research Paper – 30%
Midterm Exam – 30%                                        Final Exam – 30%
2 Online Assignments – 15%                              2 Online Assignments – 15%
4 Quizzes – 15%                                                4 Quizzes – 15%
Class Participation – 10%                                  Class Participation – 10%

FINAL GRADE = Midterm Grade (40%) + Final Period Grade (60%)
*** Final grades will be posted online. Check out
TWO WEEKS after the final examination period ***


The moment you enrolled in the college, you agree to submit yourself to the school policies. Academic institutions are not social clubs; we have rules to follow.

Attendance – It is your responsibility to come to class on our schedule and on time. I will be checking your attendance regularly. Inform me early if you will be late or if you will leave early. Any one who gets a perfect attendance will receive 0.25-point bonus on the FINAL GRADE. Perfect attendance means being present in all class sessions. Those with excused absences will not be given the bonus grade.

A student who has incurred 11 hours of absences in a 3-unit subject during the regular semester shall be dropped from the roll and given a failing grade (Article VIII, College Student Handbook: The Fisher Valley College). The 5th absence will qualify you to receive a W/F (withdrawal failure) mark equivalent to a grade of 5.0. Necessary warnings will be given to you with excessive absences and names of students who have incurred 4 or more absences will be reported to the Associate College Director so that necessary notice can be given to the parents/guardian (No. 4, Policy Guidelines for Faculty). 

Three (3) tardiness marks would mean one (1) day of absence. A student who leaves the classroom and stay out for the duration of the class period without the professor’s permission shall be marked “absent” (Article VIII, College Student Handbook: The Fisher Valley College). However, don't use this as an excuse for you to come to class late. This time allowance has been designed for working students and those who have children to take care of before going to school. Unavoidable circumstances like traffic are also given consideration. 

Cellphone and Other Electronic Gadgets Policy – I strongly discourage you using your cellphones, laptops, and other similar gadgets while we are having class discussions. It does not only distract me; it is also annoying to your classmates who are listening to my lectures. You are expected to demonstrate respect to everyone and avoid disruptive behaviors.

Make-up Exams – I do not give make-up exams EXCEPT for serious illness or death in the family. Do not make other commitments on the scheduled dates of examinations. If you have your examination permit signed by the authorized school authorities and you fail to take the exam, you will get a grade of 60% or 5.0 on that particular exam. Failure to take the final examination because of unpaid tuition fee, on the other hand, would mean an INC grade. There is NO EXEMPTION.

Academic IntegrityYou are expected to maintain academic integrity at all times. Avoid cheating during quizzes and examinations. When you cheat, you are making a contribution to the degradation of the quality of your college education. Plagiarism will not be tolerated as well. In every academic paper you submit, make sure that you cite properly the authors/institutions of your references. Claiming something as your own when you actually copied it from someone is a clear violation. Hiring someone to do your assignments, research papers, or other related works is also an offense to academic integrity. Any violation committed will have a corresponding disciplinary action as outlined in the College Student Handbook.

Index Cards - You are required to submit an index card no later than the 3rd class meeting containing the following information:

    1. Last Name, Given Name, Middle Name
    2. Student Number, Course, and Section
    3. Address (Provincial and Metro Manila)
    4. Contact Numbers (Landline, Cellular Phone, Email Address, Personal Website)
    5. Include a 1” x 1” recent photo PASTED (NOT STAPLED) on the upper right corner of the index card. 
a.       All exams, quizzes, and assignments
b.      Attendance record

If you follow all these policies, you will surely survive in all of my subjects.


De Leon, H. S. (2008). Textbook on the Philippine Constitution. Quezon City: Rex Book Store.

Zulueta, F. M. (2003). Foundations and Dynamics of Political Science. Quezon City: Academic Publishing Corporation.


Abinales, P. N. & Amoroso, D.J. (2005). State and Government in the Philippines. New York:  Rowman and Littlefield Publishers.

Morada, N., et al (2006). Philippine Politics and Governance: An Introduction. Quezon City: The University of the Philippines Press.

Muñoz, M. R. & Muñoz, D. G. (2002). Philippines Governance and Constitution. Quezon City: Katha Publishing House.


Nolledo, J. (2009). The Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines: Explained (English-Filipino Version). Manila: National Book Store.
Newspapers, websites, movies, articles, and research papers


Post a Comment

Infolinks In Text Ads