Permission Slip for the Interview in General Psychology

Attention to all General Psychology students:

Below is an example of a permission slip that you may use when you interview a psychiatrist/psychologist. You need to present this letter to the person you are going to interview. Though this requirement is for pre-final period, I post it here for your reference so that you have an idea what to do in this major requirement. 

We will seek an approval from Ms. Marianne Mojar, C5 College Administrator, and from Mrs. Kate Osorio, the Acting College Director. I hope that each one of you will do his/her best on this endeavor. 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
PERMISSION SLIP

This interview will be conducted by the undersigned students as part of the requirements in General Psychology course of The Fisher Valley College C5 Annex Campus, Taguig City at National Center for Mental Health>, Mandaluyong City>.

The aims of this course are to introduce students to the basic concepts and principles of psychology and to encourage students to produce their own original write-ups about concepts relating to psychology by means of an interview.

Name of Students                                 Signature:                                          Student Number:
_______________________________                    ______________________                     ______________________
_______________________________                    ______________________                     ______________________


Signed:


MARLON B. RAQUEL
College Instructor, General Psychology

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

________________________________________________
(WORKING TITLE OF THE INTERVIEW)

Please affix your signature below that you have read and agree with the following statements:

I understand that this interview is being conducted as part of the academic requirements for General Psychology.

I confirm that the students have explained to me the working title of the article and the nature of its proposed content.

I understand that this material will be used only for classroom discussion only.



Signed:  ________________________________                  ________
                 Name of the Interviewee                                   Date
             (Signature over Printed Name)

Assignment No. 1 in Civic Welfare Services I

Click the title of this post first and then post your answers for your assignments on the comment form located just below the page. 


 With the implementation of the National Service Training Program Act of 2001, the once mandatory ROTC became optional. Two components have been added: Literacy Training Service and Civic Welfare Training Service. Provide your position on the issue. Are you one of those groups and individuals who want ROTC to become mandatory again like Sen. Jinggoy Estrada or you just want it to become optional as implemented by the Department of Education and other government agencies? Justify your position. It should contain at least 500 words.

Deadline of Submission: August 7, 2010, 11:59PM

1st Lecture Series - Wesleyan College of Manila Debate Society



The Wesleyan College of Manila Debate Society presents its 1st Lecture on The Nature of Debate and Its Mechanics on Wednesday, 28 July 2010, 2:00pm-3:00pm at Room 304, Wesleyan College of Manila, Leveriza St., Pasay City. 


Speaker: MARLON B. RAQUEL, Faculty Member

Extension of Deadlines for Assignments


Deadlines of assignments are reset to the following dates:

July 31, 2010 (Saturday), 11:59PM
Masining na Pakikipagtalastasan
Logic 
Fundamentals of Sociology

August 7, 2010 (Saturday), 11:59PM
General Psychology
Philippine History with Politics and Governance
Rizal's Life and Works

For Civic Welfare Services I, the deadline of submission will be on August 7, 2010, 11:59PM.



KOMUNIKASYONG BERBAL

Simbolisasyon: pagtutumbas ng ideya, lugar, o bagay

Isang anyo ng paghahatid ng mga mensahe sa pamamagitan ng mga salitang simbolo na kumakatawan sa mga ideya at bagay-bagay.
Kasama na ditto ang pagsulat, pagbasa, pagsasalita, at pakikinig.

Gerald (1960), ginagamit ito:
o          Datos na lutasin: pandinig
o          Receiver is busy and alertness is down
o          Mensahe ay mahalga, maikli, at madali            
o          Pleksibiliti ng transmisyon ng mensahe: pasalita
o          Impormasyon kaugnay sa tiyak na usapin o isyu
o          Resepsyong biswal ay hindi mabisa

Pag-iinterpret nito mahalaga ang:
o          Referent:  bagay o ideya na kinakatawan ng isang salita. Pwede rin ito sa isang aksyon, katangian at relasyon ng aksyon na ito.
o          Common referens: parehong kahulugang binibigay ng mga taong sangkot sa isang sitwasyong pangkomunikasyon.
o          Kontekstong Berbal: kahulugan batay sa ugnayan nito sa ibang salita sa loob ng pahayag.
o          Paraan ng Pagbigkas/Manner of utterance: kahulugang konotatibo.

KOMUNIKASYONG DI-BERBAL

Mahalaga sapagkat:

o          Inilalantad ang emosyonal na kalagayan ng isang tao.
o          Nililinaw ang kahulugan ng mga mensahe
o          Pinanatili ang interaksyong resiprokal ng source at receiver

Anyo ng komunikasyong di-berbal:
o          Oras (chronemics): pagdating ng huli sa job interview
o          Espasyo (proxemics): intimate[ 1-.5ft], personal [1 ½-4 ft], social [4-12 ft],public [12ft+]
o          Katawan (kinesics): 
§          body language [eg: eyes]
§          pananamit at kaanyuan
§          tindig at kilos
§          kumpas ng kamay: regulative, descriptive, emphatic
o          Pandama (haptics): sense of touch [hawak, pindot, hablot... ]
o          Simbolo (iconics): simbolong panlansangan, ...
o          Kulay: damdamin or orientation
o          Paralanguage: paraan ng pagbigkas ng salita.

KONSIDERASYON SA MABISANG KOMUNIKASYON

Setting (saan)
Participants (sino)
Ends (layunin)
Act Sequence (takbo)
Keys (pormal o impormal)
Instrumentalities (midyum)
Norms (paksa)
Genre (uri)

S-P-E-A-K-I-N-G ayon kay Del Hymes


Setting and Scene

Participants

Ends

Act Sequence

Key

Instrumentalities

Norms

Genre



LEKTYUR BILANG 4

Komunikasyon


DEPINISYON NG KOMUNIKASYON

Webster: Ang komunikasyon ay pagpapahayag, pagpapabatid o pagbibigay ng impormasyon sa mabisang paraan, isang pakikipag-ugnayan, pakikipagpalagayan o pakikipag-unawaan.

Greene at Petty (Debeloping Language Skills): intensyonal o konsyus na paggamit ng anumang simbolo upang makapagpadala ng katotohanan, ideya, damdamin, o emosyon mula sa isang indbidwal tungo sa iba.

Pagkakaroon ng reaksyon sa tahimik na paraan sa pinaglalaanan ng mensaheng pangkomunikasyon.

Gray at Wise (Bases of Speech): kung walang metodo ng komunikasyon, ang mga institusyong pantao ay di magiging possible.

Maaring magamit sa mabuti o masamang layon.

Proseso ng pagpapadala ng at pagtanggap ng mga mensahe sa pamamagitan ng cues ma maaring berbal o di-berbal.

URI NG KOMUNIKASYON

1. Komunikasyong Intrapersonal: pansarili
2. Komunikasyong Interpersonal: pagitan ng 2 tao, o isang tao at isang maliit na pangkat
3. Komunikasyong Pampubliko: 1 tao at malaking pangkat ng mga tao.

KATANGIAN NG KOMUNIKASYON

1. Komunikasyon ay isang proseso: Ito ay isang closed-circuit na proseso na kinapapalooban ng encoding at decoding.

2. Proseso ng Komunikasyon ay dinamiko: Pag nangyari na, hindi na ito mauulit.

3. Komunikasyon ay komplikado: persepsyon

o          Persepsyon sa sarili
o          Persepsyon sa kanyang kausap
o          Persepsyon ng kanyang kausap sa kanya
o          Tunay na persepsyon ng kanyang kausap sa kanya

4. Mensahe, hindi kahulugan, and naipapadala/natatanggap sa Komunikasyon: pagbibigay ng kahulugan ay depende sa tumatanggap nito.

Hindi tayo maaring umiwas sa Komunikasyon: through actions, gestures—not just words.

Mga Modelo ng Komunikasyon

Modelong S-M-R ni Berlo
·                    Source-Message-Receiver

Modelo ni Aristotle sa pag-eenkowd ng Mensahe
o          Pagtuklas
o          Pagsasaayos
o          Pagbibihis
o          Paghahatid

Modelo ni Schramm
o          Source-Signal-Receiver

Ruesch and Bateson Model:
o          Nagpapadala ng mensahe: pinagmumulan at nag-eencode
o          Mensahe: pangnilalaman at di-berbal na mensahe
o          Daluyan/Travel ng Mensahe: sensori (senses) at institusyonal (electronics)
o          Tagatanggap ng Mensahe: magbibigay-kahulugan sa mensahe at mag de-decode.
o          Tugon o Pidbak:
§          Tuwirang tugon: agad-agad ang pagsagot
§          Di-tuwirang Tugon: di-berbal
§          Naantalang tugon: panahon
o          Reversal of roles

MGA SAGABAL SA KOMUNIKASYON

§          Semantiko: salita o pangungusap mismo
§          Pisikal: ingay sa paligid
§          Pisyolohikal: sa katawan [kapansanan, pagkakasakit]
§          Sikolohikal: biases, prejudices, etc.

Assignment No. 1 in Rizal's Life and Works

Click the title of this post first and then post your answers for your assignments on the comment form located just below the page. 



Write your reaction on the following quote: 

"Not only is Rizal the most famous man of his own, but the greatest man the Malayan race has produced." 
--Ferdinand Blumentritt--


Your reaction should contain at least 500 words. 


Deadline of Submission: August 7, 2010, Saturday, 11:59PM


Click the title of this post first and then post your answers for your assignments on the comment form located just below the page. 


There are two dominant theories on how the Filipinos came into existence: one, that of Beyer’s “Migration Theory” and second, that of Jocano’s “Evolution Theory”. Henry Otley Beyer, an American anthropologist who worked as a professor in the University of the Philippines Diliman, believes that Filipinos came from different groups, particulary from Malays of Malaysia, through migration with the use of land bridges. F. Landa Jocano, a Filipino anthropologist and historian who worked as a professor in the University of the Philippines Diliman, believes that Filipinos are products of lengthy evolutionary process with distinct culture. Research on the arguments presented by the two distinguised scholars and choose one theory between the two which convinces you most. Defend your anwer.  Your essay should contain at leat 1,000 words. 

Deadline of Submission: August 7, 2010, Saturday, 11:59PM

Assignment No. 1 in CWS 1

Click the title of this post first and then post your answers for your assignments on the comment form located just below the page.

Assignment No. 1 in Rizal's Life and Works



Click the title of this post first and then post your answers for your assignments on the comment form located just below the page. 

Assignment No. 1 in Fundamentals of Sociology

Click the title of this post first and then post your answers for your assignments on the comment form located just below the page. 
 
Society is a very important concept in the field of sociology. The moment you were born in this world, you automatically became a member of it. The society shapes you as an individual and you shape the society in some ways as well.

In your assignment, write a 500-word essay on your perception about the society, how it continually shaping you as an individual and the ways in which you influence the society. You may cite several personal experiences.


Deadline of Submission: 31 July 2010, 11:59pm
 

Assignment No. 1 in General Psychology









Click the title of this post first and then post your answers for your assignments on the comment form located just below the page. 

Journal of Dreams

Write a journal of your dreams for five days. Our aim here is to better understand yourselves and your surroundings by taking a look on how your minds work during sleep. Follow the following steps for five days.

Step One:
When you lay down to go to sleep, say out loud “REMEMBER YOUR DREAMS” repeatedly. You may do it 20 times or more depending on your guts to say that loud while your brother/sister is sleeping next beside you. Remember, our dreams have something to do with what we do during the previous day.

Step Two:
After you repeatedly say the sentence, say “REMEMBER YOUR DREAMS” to yourself. You don’t have to ‘shout’ at this time. J You can do this by just saying it on your mind or by your lips. No sounds, okay? You can do this 20 times.

Step Three:
Always prepare a pen and paper beside you. When you wake up in the morning, write whatever you remember while you are in the state of sleeping. Write as many details as you can about your dreams.

Step Four:
Organize your dreams, word-processed it, and then post it on this website. Have a printed copy of your dreams too because each one of you will share your dreams with the class. 


 


Deadline of Submission: August 7, 2010 11:59PM

Assignment No. 1 in Masining na Pakikipagtalastasan






Click the title of this post first and then post your answers for your assignments on the comment form located just below the page. 

Ang buwan ng Agosto ay Buwan ng Wika kung saan isinasagawa ang iba't ibang gawain bilang selebrasyon sa wikang Filipino. Basahin ang isang artikulo na nakasulat sa website na ito, http://pinoyweekly.org/new/2009/08/isang-hamon-sa-buwan-ng-wika/ na sinulat ni Danilo A. Arao. Gumawa ng isang maikling reaksyon sa opinyon ni Ginoong Arao. (500 na mga salita)

Deadline of Submission: July 31, 2010 11:59PM

You may now claim your IDs



Attention to all TFVC C5 Campus students:


You may now claim your Student ID. Look for Ms. Lara, our Student Assistant, at the Faculty Room.

Contents of a Movie Review


A movie review is NOT all about your reactions – your reactions are just a part of the movie review. While different colleges and individuals use different style and contents in writing a movie review, I suggest that you follow the basic steps. There are four basic parts that you need to provide.


Note: Your movie review should contain at least 1,000 words.


1. Outline some basic information on the movie. Include the following:

  • Name of the film – You may include the reason why the movie has been named that way based on what you observe during the film showing. You could also look for references in the web.
  • Stars of the film specially the prominent ones – Specify the names of the stars in real life and their names used on the actual film. Include also the relationships that exist among them and the role they play in the movie.
  • The setting – Indicate and describe the place and time of the movie being reviewed.
  • Type of film – Is the film a comedy, drama, horror, sci-fi, etc? You may search the internet about the different movie genre.  
2. Your movie review should include the plot summary. A plot is “all the events in a story particularly rendered toward the achievement of some particular artistic or emotional effect or general theme.” (Wikipedia) 

3. Discuss various aspects of the filmmaking. This includes acting, direction (film director), editing, costume design, set design, photography, background music, etc.

4. Reflection or synthesis. For academic purposes, you need to integrate the concepts, theories, and frameworks on the respective course where the film has been shown. You may include an application of these concepts to your day-to-day life by citing an example.



I passed the April 2010 Civil Service Exam!




God is so good in my life! Almost everyday since July 1st, I am always checking the Civil Service Commission website for the results of the Civil Service Examination. A total of 95,393 Filipinos from around the country took the written exam last April 25, 2010. In National Capital Region alone, there were12,360 hopefuls who took the Professional Level examinations but only 2,297 passed the exam (including me!). That is 18.58% passing rate. Last November 2009, only 6,334 of the 62,389 who took the exam made it. The passing rate is 10.15 percent only.

And tonight, while I am browsing the web pages of CSC, I saw my name in the official list of those who passed the exam! Wow! This is really amazing! I have a high regard for the Civil Service Commission in the Philippines in spite of some civil service professionals who are committing offenses against the public. This small group of individuals who are tainting the dignity of the Filipino people should be thrown into the dungeons of hell so that they would realize the importance of public service. Public office is a public trust.

This is the third major exam that I took in my lifetime, and in each exam, God gave His favor to me. The very first exam was the coveted University of the Philippines College Admission Test (UPCAT); second, the Department of Science and Technology (DOST) Scholarship Examination; and the third one, the Civil Service Exam administered by the Civil Service Commission (CSC), where the official results were posted just tonight. 

The next thing that I want to focus on is the Foreign Service Officer (FSO) Examination to be administered by the Department of Foreign Affairs next year. Oh, Lord, you are really so merciful to me! 

"Passing the career service examinations would result in the conferment of either Professional or Sub-professional eligibility that is needed, among others, for permanent appointment to corresponding career service positions in the government, except those that involve practice of profession or are covered by special laws," according to CSC website. 

To view the results of the examinations, click here.

Letter of Request for Interview and Access to Public Documents


Hi everyone,

Please follow the following format for your Letter of Request. You need to word-processed it in a long bond paper.

Thank you.

Marlon B. Raquel


The Fisher Valley College
C5 Annex Campus
Phase 2, Bgy. Pinagsama Village, Western Bicutan, Taguig City


Letter of Request for Interview and Access to Public Documents


10 July 2010


Hon. Juan dela Cruz
Barangay Chairman
Bgy. Katuparan, Western Bicutan, Taguig City


Dear Honorable Dela Cruz:


Greetings of peace and prosperity!

We, the undersigned, are students of The Fisher Valley College C5 Annex Campus in Taguig City, and are currently enrolled in Philippine History with Politics and Governance under the tutelage of Mr. Marlon B. Raquel.

We would like to set an appointment with you for an interview in your most convenient time. The group will write a Barangay Profile with special emphasis to its history and political affairs as part of the requirements in the course.

As students and citizens of this great nation, we believe we can contribute something that is valuable in nation-building. Making ourselves aware of our rich cultural, socio-economic, and political heritage and in particular to that of Barangay Pinagsama, is one way of getting involved in building our nation.

We would appreciate it much if you could assist us in this endeavor. Thank you so much for your time and utmost cooperation.


Respectfully yours,


Juan dela Cruz
Pedro dela Merced


Noted by:


Marlon B. Raquel
Instructor


Approved by:


Ms. Marianne Mojar
College Administrator




Thank you for the birthday greetings!




Thanks for those who greeted me today on my birthday - through chats, emails, Facebook, personal greetings, to those who called me over the phone, and through texts. It is overwhelming. I appreciate it. 

I thank the Lord for giving me 25 years of existence on earth, and I am praying that He will give me more years (like 100), hehehe. 



Lectures Notes No. 2 in Logic


Ethics (also known as moral philosophy) is a branch of philosophy that addresses questions about morality—that is, concepts such as good and bad, noble and ignoble, right and wrong, justice, and virtue.


Major branches of ethics:

  1. Meta-ethics is the branch of ethics that seeks to understand the nature of ethical properties, and ethical statements, attitudes, and judgments.

A. Semantics of ethics - divides naturally into descriptivism and non-descriptivism. Descriptivism holds that ethical language (including ethical commands and duties) is a subdivision of descriptive language and has meaning in virtue of the same kind of properties as descriptive propositions. Non-descriptivism contends that ethical propositions are irreducible in the sense that their meaning cannot be explicated sufficiently in terms of descriptive truth-conditions.

B. Epistemology of ethics - divides into cognitivism and non-cognitivism. Non-cognitivism may be understood as the claim that ethical claims reach beyond the scope of human cognition or as the (weaker) claim that ethics is concerned with action rather than with knowledge. Cognitivism can then be seen as the claim that ethics is essentially concerned with judgments of the same kind as knowledge judgments; namely about matters of fact.

C. Ontology of ethics - is concerned with the idea of value-bearing properties, i.e. the kind of things or stuffs that would correspond to or be referred to by ethical propositions.

  1. Normative ethics (also known as moral theory) was the study of what makes actions right and wrong.

Socrates:
In this view, Knowledge having a bearing on human life was placed highest, all other knowledge being secondary. Self-knowledge was considered necessary for success and inherently an essential good. A self-aware person will act completely within their capabilities to their pinnacle, while an ignorant person will flounder and encounter difficulty.

Aristotle:
In Aristotle's view, when a person acts in accordance with his nature and realizes his full potential, he will do good and be content. At birth, a baby is not a person, but a potential person. To become a "real" person, the child's inherent potential must be realized.

  1. Applied ethics is a discipline of philosophy that attempts to apply ethical theory to real-life situations.

The sort of questions addressed by applied ethics include: "Is getting an abortion immoral?" "Is euthanasia immoral?" "Is affirmative action right or wrong?" "What are human rights, and how do we determine them?" "Do animals have rights as well?" and "Do individuals have the right of self determination?"

A more specific question could be: "If someone else can make better out of his/her life than I can, is it then moral to sacrifice myself for them if needed?" 

"Is lying always wrong?" and, "If not, when is it permissible?”

  1. Moral psychology concerns about how moral capacity or moral agency develops and what its nature is.

Such topics are ones that involve the mind and are relevant to moral issues. Some of the main topics of the field are moral responsibility, moral development, moral character(especially as related to virtue ethics), altruism, psychological egoism, moral luck, and moral disagreement

  1. Descriptive ethics, about what moral values people actually abide by.
Ethical codes applied by various groups. Some consider aesthetics itself the basis of ethics– and a personal moral core developed through art and storytelling as very influential in one's later ethical choices.

Informal theories of etiquette that tend to be less rigorous and more situational. Some consider etiquette a simple negative ethics, i.e., where can one evade an uncomfortable truth without doing wrong? According to this view, ethics is more a summary of common sense social decisions.
Practices in arbitration and law, e.g., the claim that ethics itself is a matter of balancing "right versus right," i.e., putting priorities on two things that are both right, but that must be traded off carefully in each situation.

Observed choices made by ordinary people, without expert aid or advice, who vote, buy, and decide what is worth valuing. This is a major concern of sociology, political science, and economics.

Lecture Notes No. 1 in General Psychology

DEFINITION OF PSYCHOLOGY

Psychology – comes from Greek words “psyche” which means “soul or mind” and “logos” which means “study”

-         the science of behavior and mental processes that seeks to describe and explain aspects of human thought feelings, perceptions and actions


DIFFERENCE BETWEEN BACHELOR OF ARTS (AB) IN PSYCHOLOGY AND BACHELOR OF SCIENCE (BS) IN PSYCHOLOGY

The difference between AB Psychology and BS Psychology depends on your career goals. If you want to take to medicine or allied health sciences like public health or medical technology, you need to take B.S. Psychology because the main focus is on the chemical and biological aspects of human behavior. On the other hand, if you want to a job that has something to do with community service or social work, or if you want to take master’s degree in philosophy or Bachelor of Laws, a BA degree is better.


GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY

To describe, explain, predict, and control behavior and mental processes

Describe: tell what occurred 
Explain: tells the why
Predict: under what conditions is the behavior/event likely to occur
Control: how is the principle applied or what change in condition is necessary to prevent unwanted occurrence or to bring about a desired outcome

SCHOOLS OF THOUGHT IN PSYCHOLOGY (THE HISTORICAL VIEW)

1. Structuralism: The first school of psychology aimed at analyzing the basic elements, or structure of conscious mental experience through the use of introspection

Proponents:


Wilhelm Wudnt - in 1879 Germany first formal laboratory to find natural laws of human mind -primary interest: perception -recorded in minute detail thoughts, feelings, heartbeat, respiration - Titchener was his student

Bradford Titchener - broke consciousness into three elements: physical sensations, feelings and images (memories)

2. Functionalism - explores how an organism uses perceptual abilities to function in its environment


Proponent:


William James - 1st American Psychologist; minds constantly weaving associations, revising experience, jumping back and forth in time "consciousness flows in a conscious stream"; nervous system changed by experiences


3. Psychodynamic/Psychoanalysis - method of investigation of the mind and the way one thinks; a systematized set of theories about human behavior; and a form of psychotherapy to treat psychological or emotional distress, especially unconscious conflict


Proponent:


Sigmund Freud - doctor/neurologist; unconscious desires and conflicts lie at bottom of symptoms; free will an illusion; motivated by unconscious instincts not available to conscious mind; personality develops in stages-need to resolve conflicts in early stages


4. Behaviorism - school of psychology that studies observable, measurable behavior


Proponents:


John Watson – argued that structuralism, functionalism and psychodynamic theories mental life a superstition; if you can't measure it can't study it; focus on observable, measurable; behaviorism based on Pavlov studies that showed behavior is learned response to stimuli in the environment-conditioning;  infant "tabula rasa"
“Give me a dozen healthy infants, well-formed, and my own specified world to bring them up in and I'll guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become any type of specialist I might select – doctor, lawyer, artist, merchant-chief and, yes, even beggar-man and thief, regardless of his talents, penchants, tendencies, abilities, vocations, and race of his ancestors. I am going beyond my facts and I admit it, but so have the advocates of the contrary and they have been doing it for many thousands of years.” [Behaviorism (1930), p. 82]


BF Skinner – added idea of reinforcement- rewarded subjects for behaving certain way; rat in cage with lever-reinforced with food when lever pressed


6. Gestalt - studies how people perceive and experience objects as whole patterns

Proponents:


Wolfgang Kohler, Max Wertheimer and Kurt Koffka - rather that breaking down thoughts and behavior to their smallest element, the gestalt position maintains that the whole of experience is important, and the whole is different than the sum of its parts.


7. Existentialism - focuses on the meaninglessness and alienation of modern life, and how these factors lead to apathy and psychological problems

Proponent:

8. Humanism - focused on fundamentally and uniquely human issues, such as individual free will, personal growth, self-actualization, self-identity, death, aloneness, freedom, and meaning.


Proponents:


Abraham Maslow – hierarchy of needs


Carl Rogers - an influential American psychologist and among the founders of the humanistic approach to psychology; widely considered to be one of the founding fathers of psychotherapy research


9. Cognitive- studies mental processes including how people think, perceive, remember, and learn


Proponent:


Noam Chomsky - There are three key ideas. First is that the mind is "cognitive," or that the mind actually contains mental states, beliefs, doubts, and so on. Second, he argued that most of the important properties of language and mind are innate. Lastly, Chomsky made the concept of "modularity" a critical feature of the mind's cognitive architecture. The mind is composed of an array of interacting, specialized subsystems with limited flows of inter-communication. 


10. Evolutionary psychology - explores origins of behavior and their adaptive value -study altruism, mate selection, jealousy in different species, cultures, times, compare male and female -cultural and gender differences 


RESEARCH METHODS IN PSYCHOLOGY

1. Experimental Method - the method where researchers randomly assign participants to groups and control all conditions other than the one or more independent variables which are then manipulated to determine their effect on some behavior measured--the dependent variable in the experiment

Independent variable - the factor or condition that researchers manipulate in order to determine its effect on an other behavior or condition known as the dependent variable

Dependent variable - the variable measured at the end of the experiment and that is presumed to vary as the result of manipulations of the independent variable

Experimental Group - in an experiment, the group of participants exposed to the independent variable or treatment

Control Group - a group that is similar to the experimental group and is expose to the same experiential environment but is NOT exposed to the independent variable; the group is used for comparison

2. Correlational Method - a research method used to establish the relationship (correlation) between tow characteristics, events or behaviors

* a positive correlation means when one variable increases the other increases
* a negative correlation means when one increases the other is associated with a decrease (e.g. there is a negative correlation between number of cigarettes a person smokes and the number of years a person can expect to live) -variables that are not related: grade point average and height, and illness, and shoe size
* the stronger the relationship between variables, the better the prediction
3. Case Study Method - an in depth study of one or a few participants consisting of information gathered by observation, interview, or psychological testing to provide a description of behavior or disorder

4. Survey - using interviews and/or questionnaires to gather information about aptitudes, beliefs, experiences or behaviors of a group

Population - the entire group of interest to researcher and to which they wish to generalize findings; a group from which a sample is chosen

Sample - The portion of any population selected for study and from which generalizations are made about the population

Representative sample - a sample selected from the larger population in a way that important subgroups within the population are included in the same proportions as the larger population


ETHICS IN RESEARCH

Participation must be voluntary, confidentiality, freedom to withdraw, deception can be used if it is only way, not a danger, participant is debriefed as soon as possible.


BRANCHES OF PSYCHOLOGY

1. Abnormal psychology is the area that looks at psychopathology and abnormal behavior. The term covers a broad range of disorders, from depression to obsession-compulsion to sexual deviation and many more. Counselors, clinical psychologists and psychotherapists often work directly in this field

2. Behavioral psychology, also known as behaviorism, is a theory of learning based upon the idea that all behaviors are acquired through conditioning. 

3. Biopsychology is the branch of psychology focused on the study of how the brain influences behavior is often known as biopsychology, although it has also been called physiological psychology, behavioral neuroscience and psychobiology.

4. Cognitive psychology is the branch of psychology that focuses on internal states, such as motivation, problem solving, decision-making, thinking and attention.

5. Comparative psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with the study of animal behavior.

6. Developmental psychology looks at development throughout the lifespan, from childhood to adulthood. The scientific study of human development seeks to understand and explain how and why people change throughout life. This includes all aspects of human growth, including physical, emotional, intellectual, social, perceptual and personality development. 

7. Educational psychology is the branch of psychology concerned with schools, teaching psychology, educational issues and student concerns. Educational psychologists often study how students learn or work directly with students, parents, teachers and administrators to improve student outcomes.

8. Experimental psychology is the branch of psychology that utilizes scientific methods to research the brain and behavior. 

9. Forensic psychology is a specialty area that deals with issues related to psychology and the law. Forensic psychologists perform a wide variety of duties, including providing testimony in court cases, assessing children in suspected child abuse cases, preparing children to give testimony and evaluating the mental competence of criminal suspects.

10. Personality psychology is focused on the patterns of thoughts, feelings, and behavior that make a person unique.

11. Social psychology seeks to explain and understand social behavior and looks at diverse topics including group behavior, social interactions, leadership, nonverbal communication and social influences on decision-making.


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